Laam of the definite article

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-part-14: Laam of the definite article

Laam of the definite article “the”   لام التعريف ال :

The definition of the definite article   ( لام ( ال It is an extra laam saakinah added to the basic makeup of theword.

This noun is preceded by a hamzah al-waslthat is read with a fat-hah when starting the word, dropped when continuing from a previous word.

The noun that follows the definite article ( لام ( ال  may be a regular noun that stands on its own without the definite article such as Sun (الشمس) Moon (القمر).

Or it may be irregular in that it cannot be broken down further
from the  ( لام ( ال  Such as:     الذى , التى

The alif and lam of the definite article can precede a noun beginning
with any of the Arabic letters.

There are two possibilities in the rules   لام التعريف

1-  Ith-har   الاظهار

2- Idgham    الادغام

The first  Ith-har   الاظهار

If the definite article    ( لام ( ال 
precedes a noun beginning with any of the fourteen letters in the group

( ء ب غ ح ج ك و خ ف ع ق ي م هـ )

    ( إبغ حجك وخف عقيمه)

It is said clearly this called Ith-har qamari   اظهار قمرى

And the Lam then is called  لام قمرية


(القمر – الأوّل – الباسط – الغفور – الحكيم – الجليل – الكريم – الودود – الخبير – الفصل – العليم – القاهر – اليقين – الملك – الهادي)

The second  Idgham    الادغام

if  لام التعريف  precedes any of the fourteen remaining letters .

ط ث ص ر ت ض ذ ن د س ظ ز ش ل

of the Arabic alphabet,there is then Idgham (merging) of the lam of the definite article into the next letter As we know, when there is an idgham, the two letters merge into one, and the letter that the two merge into acquires a shaddah In this case then, the letter immediately following the Lam, will have a
shaddah on it. This is called idgham  
shamsi   إدغام شمسي

And the lam is then called   لام شمسية


(الشمس، الطارق، الصابرين، الرحمة، الظالمين، السماء، الزكاة، الشياطين)

– Note:

  If followed by Lam    الله – الذين- التى

The name of Allah noun that cannot be further broken down Though the original noun without the definite article was  إله  and when the alif lam was added the hamzah was dropped and the lam of the definite article merged into the lam of the noun so the honourd word became Allah  الله 
The lam in this case lam shamsiyah.

These underlined examples From surat Al-Qadr and surat Al-Bayinah:
*Lam qamariyah underlined in
*Lam shamsiyah underlined in red.
Note: Lam qamariyah above it the sign of sukoon (as head of ) حـ But lam shamsiyah has no sign of sukoon .

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