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-part-14: Laam of the definite article
Laam of the definite article “the” لام التعريف ال :
The definition of the definite article ( لام ( ال It is an extra laam saakinah added to the basic makeup of theword.
This noun is preceded by a hamzah al-waslthat is read with a fat-hah when starting the word, dropped when continuing from a previous word.
The noun that follows the definite article ( لام ( ال may be a regular noun that stands on its own without the definite article such as Sun (الشمس) Moon (القمر).
Or it may be irregular in that it cannot be broken down further
from the ( لام ( ال Such as: الذى , التى
The alif and lam of the definite article can precede a noun beginning
with any of the Arabic letters.
There are two possibilities in the rules لام التعريف
1- Ith-har الاظهار
2- Idgham الادغام
The first Ith-har الاظهار
If the definite article ( لام ( ال
precedes a noun beginning with any of the fourteen letters in the group
( ء ب غ ح ج ك و خ ف ع ق ي م هـ )
( إبغ حجك وخف عقيمه)
It is said clearly this called Ith-har qamari اظهار قمرى
And the Lam then is called لام قمرية
(القمر – الأوّل – الباسط – الغفور – الحكيم – الجليل – الكريم – الودود – الخبير – الفصل – العليم – القاهر – اليقين – الملك – الهادي)
The second Idgham الادغام
if لام التعريف precedes any of the fourteen remaining letters .
ط ث ص ر ت ض ذ ن د س ظ ز ش ل
of the Arabic alphabet,there is then Idgham (merging) of the lam of the definite article into the next letter As we know, when there is an idgham, the two letters merge into one, and the letter that the two merge into acquires a shaddah In this case then, the letter immediately following the Lam, will have a
shaddah on it. This is called idgham shamsi إدغام شمسي
And the lam is then called لام شمسية
(الشمس، الطارق، الصابرين، الرحمة، الظالمين، السماء، الزكاة، الشياطين)
If followed by Lam الله – الذين- التى
The name of Allah noun that cannot be further broken down Though the original noun without the definite article was إله and when the alif lam was added the hamzah was dropped and the lam of the definite article merged into the lam of the noun so the honourd word became Allah الله
The lam in this case lam shamsiyah.
These underlined examples From surat Al-Qadr and surat Al-Bayinah:
*Lam qamariyah underlined in blue.
*Lam shamsiyah underlined in red.
Note: Lam qamariyah above it the sign of sukoon (as head of ) حـ But lam shamsiyah has no sign of sukoon .