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-part-18: THE MUDOOD ( The Lengthenings ) part 2 المـــدو
2-The lesser Connecting Lengthening Madd Assilah Assughra مــد الصـلة الكبــرى
It is a madd that comes from the vowel on a (pronoun or possessive pronoun haa (ــــه
A haa at the end of a word (last letter) that is not part of the original make up of the word, representing the singular third person male.
It is voweled either with a dhammah or a kasrah, positioned between two voweled letters, the reader is not stopping on it, and it is not followed by a hamzah. When all these requirements are met the dhammah on the haa become lengthened into a lengthened waw or the kasrah on the haa becomes lengthened like a lengthened yaa, When stopping on this haa we stop with a regular
sukoon, and the two count madd is dropped. مَا أَغْنَىٰ عَنْهُ مَالُهُ وَمَا كَسَبَ
The last letter of the word مال ُ هis a pronoun not part of the original word, representing a male third person, located between two voweled letters lam with dammah and waw with fathah if we read this in continuation with the next word (meaning we do not stop on this word), we lengthen the
dhammah on the haa so that it becomes the length of a lengthened waw, which would be two vowel counts. Please note the small ( و) و اوafter the هـ
ــه This tells us that there is an extra (مالَهو( واو
Here there is NO madd because haa is sakinah قَالُوا أَرْجِهْ وَأَخَاهُ
– Exceptions to the Lesser Connective Lengthening rule
1-Here there is NO madd, even though all of the conditions have been met.
2-Here there IS a madd, even though all of the conditions have not been met.
وَإِن تَشْكُرُوا يَرْضَهُ لَكُمْ
يُضَاعَفْ لَهُ الْعَذَابُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَيَخْلُدْ فِيهِ مُهَانًا
3-The Substitute Lengthening (Madd Al-Ewadh) مـــد العـــوض
It is substituting a lengthened alif for the tanween with a fath ,فتح
when stopping on it.
The lengthening is two counts, which means, the length of two vowels, the same as the counts of natural lengthening. This madd takes place whether there is an alif written after the letter with the tanween or not.
When continuing reading and not stopping on the word that has the tanween with a fat-h, this lengthening disappears, and the noon sakinah rules are applied to the tanween.
If there is an alif written after the tanween, it is dropped when continuing.
Not included in this madd is هاء التؤنيث or female haa in Arabic represented ةor ـة when linked, This
letter occurs on the end of nouns, indicates female gender.
This letter is always read as a haa هـsaakinah when stopping on the word, and is always read as a taa تin the case of continuing.
When a noun with a female haa has a tanween with a fath فتح
the word should be stopped on with a haa sakinah and there is no alif substituted for the tanween.
This is found in such words as: رحمة نعمة pronounced رحمة نعمة
4-The Exchange Lengthening ( (Madd Al-Badal ) مــــد البـــدل
Its definition: The letter hamzah precedes any of the three madd letters.
Note: The vowel of the madd letter is on the hamzahز
As seen these words originally had two hamzahs, the first one had a vowel and the second a sukoon. The second hamzah was changed into a madd letter from the category of the vowel of the first hamzah (for example if the first hamzah has kasra then the second hamzah changed to yaa).
Not all cases of madd badl (a hamzah preceding a madd letter) have this origin (two hamzahs, the first with a vowel and the second with a sukoon), but we treat all cases of hamzah before a madd letter as . مد بدل
Madd badl is lengthened for two vowel counts by the way of recitation of Hafs „an „Aasim.