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A- Without Opposites Permanent Qualities الصفات اللازمة غير المتضادة
1-Qalqalah – ( القلقة )
2. As-Safeer –( الصفير)
3. Al-Leen – ( اللين)
4. Al-Inhiraf – ( الأنحراف )
5. At-Takreer – ( التكرير)
6. At-Tafasshy – ( التفشى)
7. Istitaalah – ( الأستطالة)
B-The Permanent Qualities with Opposites الصفات اللازمة المتضادة
1-Aljahr الجهر <–Opposites—> Alham الهمس
2-Ashiddah الشدة <–At-Tawassu—> Arakhawa الرخاوة
3-Isti’laa الاستعلاء<–Opposites—> Istifaa الاستفال
4-Infitaa الانفتاح <–Opposites—> Itbaaq الاطباق
5-Idhlaq الازلاق<–Opposites—> Ismat الاصمات
First: The Permanent Qualities With Opposites الصفات اللازمة المتضادة
1- Alham الهمس :
• Literally means: concealment.
• Technically means the continuation of the breath when pronouncing the letter due to weakness in its origin, causing weakness in its reliance on its makhraj.
• The following letters have this quality: ( فحثه شخص سكت)
All of these 10 letters are pronounced with a running of breath.
1- Aljahr الجهر :
The opposite of Al-Hams الهمس
• Literally means: to be apparent.
• Technically means the discontinuation of the breath when pronouncing the letter due to strength in its origin, causing it to rely greatly on its makhraj.
• The rest of the letters have this quality.
-During pronouncing letters of Jahr collision and vibration vocal cords occurs.
All of these letters are pronounced without a running of breath.
2- Ashiddah الشدة:
Literally means: strength.
• Technically means the discontinuation of the sound while pronouncing the letter causing it to rely greatly on its makhraj.
• The following letters have this quality . (أجد قطن بكت )
Take note of concerning the eight letters of this group is that all of the qalqalah letters (those in the group قطب جد)The only other letters in شدة group that are not also qalqalah letters are the letters كاف ء تاء
In all cases except كاف and تاء all characteristics are applied simultaneously to a letter, but when the كاف and تاء are saakinah, first the characteristic of الشدة is applied, then the characteristic of همس which is the running of air.
2- Arakhawa الرخاوة:
The opposite of Ashiddah الشدة
• Literally means: softness.
• Technically means the continuation of the sound while pronouncing the letter causing weakness in its
reliance on its makhraj.
• All letters other than the letters of shiddah and Tawassut have this quality.
2- At-Tawassu التوسط:
Literally means: moderation.
• Technically it means: between strength and softness so that the sound is partially continued and partially discontinued when pronouncing the letter.
It is not a separate quality on its own but
• It is not a separate quality on its own but falls in between both shiddah and rakhawah.
• This quality is found in the following letters . (لن عمر )
All voweled letters (with fat-ha, dammah, kasrah) are equal in time to one another; all getting one vowel count.
Example ( ُش = دُ = ل = ِر = َس = َق ) َall these letters equal in time during pronouncing.
Saakin letters (have no vowel) have different lengths of timing depending on which group they belong to.
The letters of Rakhawa group have the longest timing, yet they are equal in timing to each other.
Attwasit group of letters have a shorter amount of timing when saakinah, but again, equal to each other.
Ash-shiddah letters have the shortest timing of all the saakinah letters, and are equal to each other.
siin س sakinah is longer in time than Noon ن ,Noon is longer time than Baa ب.
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