This commentary is a compilation gathered from a number of commentaries written. These being:
· Tafseer at-Tabaree
· Tafseer al-Qurtubi [Jaami lil Ahkaam al-Qur’an]
· Tafseer ibn Katheer
· Tafseer ash-Shawkanee [Fath al-Qadeer]
· Tafseer as-Sa`dee [Tayseer al-Kareem ar-Rahman]
· Tafseer ash-Shanqeetee [Adwaa al-Bayaan fee Eedaah al-Qur’an bil Qur’an].
-> Surah fatihahMeaning of its name:
- – It is named al-Fatihah, the Opening – because it opens the Book and by it the recitation in prayer
- It is also named Ummul Qur’an, the Mother of the Qur’an, and Ummul Kitaab, the Mother of the Book.It is established in at-Tirmidhee from Abu Hurayrah (May Allah be pleased with him)who said,
The Messenger of Allah (Peace and Blessings be upon him) said, ‘[the chapter commencing with] “all praises and thanks are due to Allah the Lord of the Universe” is the Mother of the Qur’an, the Mother of the Book, the Seven Oft Repeated Verses and the Great Qur’an.’ [i.e. Ummul Qur’an, Ummul Kitaab,
Sab`ul Mathaanee and al-Qur’anul Adheem]
At-Tirmidhee declared the hadeeth to be saheeh. Al-Bukhaaree said in the beginning of the Book of
Tafseer in his Saheeh,
1-It is named Ummul Qur’an because it is the first chapter written in the Qur’anic texts and the recitation in
2-prayer commences with it. [Saheeh Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 6/1 chpt. 1]]
Ibn Jareer at-Tabaree said that it was named so because the meaning of the entire Qur’an is summarized therein. The Arabs named anything that concisely summarizes something or comprises the most important part of something Umm, or Mother.
- For similar reasons it is also named al-Qur’an al-Adheem, the Great Qur’an.
It is also named Sab`ul Mathaanee, the Seven Oft Repeated Verses, because they are frequently recited and indeed recited in every rak`ah of the prayer.
- It is also named al-Hamd, the Praise because it contains mention of hamd just as al-Baqarah is named so because it contains mention of the cow. Some scholars also gave the reasoning that al-Hamd constitutesm the heart of al-Fatihah.
It is also named as-Salaah, the Prayer due his (Peace and Blessings be upon him) saying while reportingmfrom his Lord,
“I have divided the prayer between Myself and my servant equally. Therefore when the servant says, ‘all praises and thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of the universe,’ Allah says, ‘My servant has praised Me…
It is named the Prayer because its recitation is a condition for the validity of the prayer.
- It is also named ash-Shifaa`, the Cure, due to what ad-Daarimee reports from Abu Sa`eed (May Allah be
pleased with him)from the Messenger of Allah (Peace and Blessings be upon him)
- The Opening of the Book is a cure to every poison. [Ibn Katheer referred this hadeeth to ad-Daarimee
from the report of Abu Sa`eed, however it is present there [2/445] as the mursal hadeeth of Abdul-Malik bin Umayr. As for the hadeeth of Abu Sa`eed then Shaykh al-Albaanee referred it in ‘Da`eef al-Jaami asSagheer’ to Sa`eed bin Mansoor and al-Bayhaqee in ‘ash-Shu`ab.’ He also referred it to Abu ash-Shaykh
- It is also named ar-Ruqya, the Spiritual Cure due to the hadeeth of Abu Sa`eed (May Allah be pleased with him)reported in Saheeh Bukhaaree that after he had recited it to cure a person who had been bitten by a scorpion, the Messenger of Allah (Peace and Blessings be upon him) said to him, And what made you to know that it was a ruqya?
It is also postulated that it was revealed in Madeenah as stated by Abu Hurayrah, Mujaahid, `Ataa bin
Yasaar and az-Zuhree. It is also said that it was revealed on two separate occasions – once in Mecca and once in Madeenah. However the first opinion is the most likely due to His saying,
‘Amr bin Ubaid said that it consists of eight verses and Husayn al-Ju`afee said that it consists of six
verses but both of these opinions are irregular and rejected.
They have differed concerning the statement ‘with the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most
Merciful.’ The majority of the reciters of Kufa postulate that it comprises an independent verse of alFatihah and this is also the opinion of a group of the Sahaabah, Taabi`een and a large group of the laterscholars.
Those who postulate that it is not a verse of al-Fatihah state that the seventh verse commences with the
words, “not the path of those who have earned [Your] Anger…”
They said, “Al-Fatihah consists of twenty-five words and one hundred and thirteen letters.”