Surah Fatiha (THE OPENING )
This Surah is called Al-Fatihah, that is, the Opener of the Book, the Surah with which prayers are begun. It is also called, Umm Al-Kitab (the Mother of the Book), according to the majority of the scholars. In an authentic Hadith recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who graded it Sahih, Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said.
(1) بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful.
(2) الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
Praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds.
(3) الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(4) مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ
Master of the Day of Judgment.
(5) إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ
It is You we worship, and upon You we call for help.
(6) اهدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ
Guide us to the straight path.
(7) صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّينَ
The path of those You have blessed, not of those against whom there is anger, nor of those who are misguided.
THE REASON IT IS CALLED UMM AL-KITAB
In the beginning of the Book of Tafsir, in his Sahih, Al-Bukhari said; “It is called Umm Al-Kitab, because the Qur’an starts with it and because the prayer is started by reciting it.” It was also said that it is called Umm Al-Kitab, because it contains the meanings of the entire Qur’an. Ibn Jarir said, “The Arabs call every comprehensive matter that contains several specific areas an Umm. For instance, they call the skin that surrounds the brain, Umm Ar-Ra’s. They also call the flag that gathers the ranks of the army an Umm.” He also said, “Makkah was called Umm Al-Qura, (the Mother of the Villages) because it is the grandest and the leader of all villages. It was also said that the earth was made starting from Makkah.”
Further, Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated about Umm Al-Qur’an that the Prophet said هِيَ أُمُّ الْقُرْآنِ وَهِيَ السَّبْعُ الْمَثَانِي وَهِيَ الْقُرْآنُ الْعَظِيمُ