The Vowels

The Vowels in arabic

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Part 4:  The Vowels

– Arabic has three main vowels. Luckily, they’re very simple to pronounce because they’re similar to English vowels. However, it’s important to realize that Arabic also has vowel derivatives that are as important as the main vowels. These vowel derivatives fall into three categories: double vowels, long
vowels, and diphthongs.

Arabic has 3 short vowels: U, A and E/I
• These are marks that go on top or underneath a letter
• If a letter has a vowel, it means that vowel comes after that letter
• You can “double” these vowels; this will add the sound of the letter N at the end
• This doubling can only happen at the end of a word
• If a letter has no vowel after it, we put a special symbol on top of that letter to indicate this
• This symbol is called a Sukoon
• If there is a letter with a Sukoon and then the same letter in the same word again, the two letters will be written as one and a special symbol will be placed on top of the letter
• This symbol is called the Shadda
• The vowel of the second letter is placed on top of underneath the Shadda, not on top of underneath the letter itself.

The three main Arabic vowels are:

fatHah: The first main vowel in Arabic is called a fatHa (feht-hah). A fatHa is the equivalent of the short “a” in “hat” or “cat.” Occasionally, a fatHa also sounds like the short “e” in “bet” or “set.” Much like the other vowels, the way you pronounce a fatHa depends on what consonants come before or after it. In Arabic script, the fatHa is written as a small horizontal line above a consonant.

In English transcription, which I use in this book, it’s simply represented by the letter “a,” as in the words kalb (kah-leb; dog) or
walad (wah-lahd; boy).
damma: The second main Arabic vowel is the damma (dah-mah). A damma sounds like the “uh” in “foot” or “book.” In Arabic script, it’s written like a tiny backward “e” above a particular consonant. In English transcription, it’s represented by the letter “u,” as in funduq (foon-dook; hotel) or suHub (soo-hoob; clouds).
kasra: The third main vowel in Arabic is the kasra (kahs-rah), which sounds like the long “e” in “feet” or “treat.” The kasra is written the same way as a fatHa — as a small horizontal line — except that it goes underneath the consonant. In English transcription, it’s written as an “i,” as in bint (bee-neht; girl) or ‘islaam (ees-lahm; Islam).

Double vowels:

One type of vowel derivative is the double vowel, which is known in Arabic as tanwiin (tahn-ween). The process of tanwiin is a fairly simple one: Basically, you take a main vowel and place the same vowel right next to it, thus creating two vowels, or a double vowel. The sound that the double vowel makes depends on the main vowel that’s doubled. Here are all possible combinations of double vowels:

-Double fatHa: tanwiin with fatHa creates the “an” sound, as in ‘ahlan wa sahlan (ahel-an wah sahel-an; Hi).
-Double damma: tanwiin with damma creates the “oun” sound. For example, kouratoun (koo-rah-toon; ball) contains a double damma.
-Double kasra: tanwiin with kasra makes the “een” sound, as in SafHatin (sahf-hah-teen; page).

Look at :

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? Islamic Books

? Quran for Kids

? The Blogs



  • Sumaya
    July 4, 2020

    I have this friends whos to quite embarrassed to come and make an comment so here I am to fill in for her, she says she hasn’t read or touched the Quran after finishing it in 2015 but however she has listened it on She says she has forgotten most of the rules and about reading the Quran and is struggling to read very basic words and she is now asking why tanween and tajweed is needed in order to read the Qaida, Amma and Quran? She could also like an recommendations on where a beginner must start to reconnect with Allah again

    • Azim
      July 10, 2021

      Assalamu alaikum and the mercy of Allah and his blessings. To return to Allah she should first make hajj or just repent. Allah the unlimited merciful. If she is genuine, Allah will forgive her. Tell her to feel remorse while repenting and regret too. Next tell her to pray all the fardh salah and some extra as well if she is able. Warn her that missing one salah is kufr. That is actually true. Next tell her to always do dhikr. Tell her to try to pray tahajjud every night if she is able. Also tell her to call upon Allah at the last third of the night. That’s when Allah comes down to the lowest heaven and calls out. Make du’a for her. May Allah, the greatest, the kindest, make it easy for us all. Amen. Assalamu alaikum and the mercy of Allah and his blessings.

      • Azim
        July 10, 2021

        For major sins tell her to feel remorse and to pledge Allah she won’t do it again. And to ask him for forgiveness.

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          Ayat Institute
          July 24, 2021

          jazak Allah khier

  • Mohamed bagadaza
    September 3, 2021

    ما شاءالله

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