The Quran, the last revealed word of Allah, is the primary source of every Muslim‟s faith and practice. It deals with all the subjects which concern human beings: wisdom, doctrine, worship, transactions, law, etc., but its basic theme is the relationship between Allah subhanahu wa ta‟ala and His creatures.
At the same time, it provides guidelines and detailed teachings for a just society, proper human conduct,
and an equitable economic system. Not one word of its 114 surah(s) (or chapters) has been changed over the centuries.
The Qur’an is in every detail the same unique and miraculous text that was revealed to
Muhammad over fourteen centuries ago Allah subhanahu wa ta‟ala says:
إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ (9
Verily We: It is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Quran) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption).
The Qur‟an consists of 114 surah Beginning with surat alfatihah and ending with surat AnNas .All of the suwar(plural of surah means chapters) in the noble Qur‟an are grouped together into what are
called ajzaa‟ (plural of juz‟ or part) .
A juz‟ is one of the thirty parts in the noble qur‟an ,each juz‟ is further divided into ahzab (plural of hizb )each equivalent to half a juz‟ ,there are two Ahzab in each juz‟
which means 60 Hizb in the entire Qur‟an.
(Indeed those who recite the Book of Allah (this Qur’an), and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and spend (in charity) out of what We have provided for them, secretly and openly, hope for a (sure) trade-gain that will never perish. That He may pay them their wages in full, and give them (even) more, out of His Grace.
Verily! He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate (good deeds and to recompense) (Qur‟an 35:29,30) The messenger of Allah salla Allah alihi wa sallam said “recite the Qur‟an ,for it will come on the day of judgment as an intercessor for its companion “ (Muslim).
Also he said salla Allah alihi wa sallam“ Whoever recites a letter from the book of Allah ,will get a good deed , and good deed is rewarded tenfold .I am not saying that alif lam meem are counted as one letter ,rather alif is counted as one letter ,lam is counted as one letter and meem is counted as one letter.”(bukhari and muslim).
Reciting the Quran is the duty of every good Muslim on a daily basis. Whether in congregation or separately, every literate believing man, woman and child should be reading, learning and
sharing from the Book of Allah.
وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةً ضَنكًا وَنَحْشُرُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَعْمَىٰ (124
Among the next generation of Muslims referred to as Tabi‟oon, there arose many scholars who learned the various methods of recitation from the Sahabah (companions) and taught them to others.
Centers of Qur’anic recitation developed in al-Madeenah, Makkah, Kufa, Basrah and Syria, leading to the evolution of Qur’anic recitation into an independent science. By mid-eighth century CE, there existed a large number of outstanding scholars all of whom were considered specialists in the field of recitation.
Most of their methods of recitations were authenticated by chains of reliable narrators ending with the Prophet peace be upon him .
Those methods which were supported by a large number of reliable narrators on each level of their chain were called Mutawaatir and were considered to be the most accurate.
Qira’at refers to the various manners of reciting the Qur‟an Each qira’ah is named after the Qari‟ who was famous in reciting in that manner.
– There are 10 authentic Qira’at. For a qira’at to be authentic there are very detailed rules.