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3-Isti’laa الاستعلاء :
• Literally means elevation.
• Technically means the elevation of the back tongue towards the roof of the mouth when pronouncing a letter.
• The letters that have this quality are: (خص ضغط قظ)
These seven letters are also known as the letters of tafkheem(Heavy letters) When pronouncing any of these seven letters, the posterior portion of our tongue needs to elevate up to the roof of the mouth (in the soft palate area).
The mouth should be filled with an echo when these sounds are pronounced.
3-Istifaa الاستفال :
• Literally means lowering or dropping
• Technically means keeping the tongue lowered from the roof of the mouth while pronouncing a letter.
• All letters besides the letters of Isti’laa have the quality of Istifaal. (The rest of the letters )
• Literally means adhesion.
• Technically means adhesion of the tongue to the roof of the mouth whilempronouncing a letter.
• The following letters contain this quality: (ص ض ط ظ)
• Note: these letters also have Isti’laa.
• Literally means separation:
• Technically means keeping the tongue separated from the roof of the mouth while pronouncing a letter.
• All letters besides the letters of Itbaaq contain the quality of Infitaah (the remaining letters after the four letters).
Notes: Letters have Isti’laa and Infitah characteristics three letters غ خ ق
Letters have Isti’laa and Itbaaq characteristics four letters: ص ض ط ظ
So letters of Isti’laa and Itbaaq more heavier than letters have Isti’laa and Infitah.
• Literally means fluency, purity in speech.
• Technically means the articulation of the letters with utmost ease from the sides of the tongue or lips as if they are slipping away.
• The following letters contain this quality: (فر من لب)
• Literally means desistance
• Technically means the articulation of the letters with utmost strength and stability from their makhraj,
without which the letter will not be articulated.
• All other letters contain this quality.
Note: These two characteristics have more to do with the Arabic language than anything else, and are only included here because they are found in tajweed books and Imam Al-Jazaree included them in the characteristic section in his poem about the basics of tajweed.
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